Monday, December 9, 2019

Strategy Development Efficiency in Production and Reduction

Question: Discuss about theStrategy Developmentfor Efficiency in Production and Reduction. Answer: Introduction Competitive strategies are operational methods adopted by companies to gain a competitive edge against their competitors (Jose, 2010). These strategies make the company penetrate the market, gain a wide customer coverage and reduce the costs of their operations. The companies make attempts to adopt these competitive strategies to achieve the best in their activities regarding sales, customer coverage, efficiency in production and reduction of output and distribution costs. The competitive strategies are divided into three components. These include; adaptation strategies, aggregation strategies and arbitrage strategies (Klyuver, 2010). The company must adopt these strategies to remain competitive. Adaptation strategies are used by companies to achieve a higher competitive advantage against others; the aggregation techniques are used by businesses to gain economies of scale, whereas the arbitrage strategies are used by companies to reduce the cost of operations (Ghemawat, 2011). Therefore a company must use a combination of these three strategies in order to operate efficiently. Most companies combine these strategies to form an AA model. They achieve this by either combining Adaptation and Aggregation, or Aggregation and Arbitrage (Javenic, 2010). This boosts the competitiveness of the company since the company will achieve a combined strategy and a wider range of competitive techniques. In this case, two industries have been selected, and in each industry, two companies have been discussed. The two industries include; the pharmaceutical industry and the computer industry. To start with, Adaptation strategies have been used in the pharmaceutical industry by Procter and Gamble. The company has used these strategies to achieve a competitive edge in the market. These strategies include advertising and development of several operating branches in order to expand the customer coverage (Ju, 2011). This is exactly what the company has tried to do since it started its operations. The PG Company has developed several mini branches in more than twenty countries. This company started its operations in lower Mexico, where it manufactured and distributed Vicks cough syrup that contained honey as one of its ingredients. The company later extended to Latin American countries as the product gained a lot of popularity in the market. The company after stretching to Brazil rebranded the result from Vicks Cough Syrup to Vicks Castro. The company then developed a branch in Texas and California where the new brand was sold. This is a major adaptive strategy as it enabled PG to stretch into the market and obtain a wider range of customers for its product. It is also important to note that the company started selling its product to low-income earners. This enabled most people to achieve the result since the product was cheaper. The company used this strategy to avoid scaring away poor customers. The poor and middle-class people therefore developed preference for the product since it was affordable PG also majored in a unique product. This product was the only natural product as at that time. The customers, therefore, liked it. The honey content of the product was very vital in creating a market for the product as it showed that the product was a green one. Another company in the pharmaceutical industry that uses this strategy is the Novartis Company. This is a healthcare company that is based in Switzerland. This company has used a unique strategy to remain competitive. This is the use of Spotfire. Spitfire is a product of TIBCO Software Company. The software is used to process transactions, track records, monitor employee performance and analyze the business operations. The company has used Spitfire to remain more efficient in processing its transactions, preparing and delivering market reports quickly and analysis of market information. This software has helped the company to visualize aspects such as days in the field, sick days, training, vacation days and various calls made by sales representatives. This has enabled sales managers to monitor their representatives effectively. This is a unique competitive strategy that this company has used to remain on top of other businesses in marketing its products. The use of adaptive strategy in the computer industry has been shown by the International Business Machines (IBM) Company. This company manufactures computer software and hardware and distributes them into the market. It has also made major achievements in the field of technology through the invention of machines like Automated teller machine, hard drives, and floppy disks. The company has developed over one hundred and seventy branches worldwide. (IBM 2012) Development of many branches has enabled the company to distribute its products to a wider market. The company has been able to gain access to the global market through its principal branches. Advertisements techniques used by this company also form a major form of adaptation strategy. The company has achieved this by using media channels like newspapers, television, and several journals. Another company in the computer industry that uses adaptive techniques is the Microsoft Company. Those are a company that manufactures and distributes computer software. It is known for several Windows versions, the latest one being windows ten. This company has used adaptive techniques to ensure it remains on top and beat its close competitors like Google. The best example to illustrate this is the introduction of Bing search engine in the market by Microsoft. Many people have been used to Google search as the only search engine. However, when Microsoft introduced Bing, it came up with unique advertising techniques. These included; use of slogans like Bing it on the campaign,' developing of posters, employing and professional advertisers. This has made Bing to gain popularity in the market, as most people are now aware of Bing and are now using it as their search engine. Although much money is used in advertising and promoting new products, these advertisements have been major contributors to enhanced awareness about Microsoft products. This is a unique adaptation strategy that has seen Microsoft grow faster in the market, compared to other companies. The second strategy used by corporations is the aggregation strategy. The PG Company has expressly used this strategy to achieve economies of scale. It has made this possible by constantly developing global operations. Apart from developing several branches, it has continuously rebranded the products that it distributes, to achieve customer tastes and preferences. The company started with Vicks Miel which it distributed in Mexico. It then rebranded its product to Vicks Castro and distributed it to Texas California. The company also charged lower prices for its product to favor middle-income earners. This was a great aggregative strategy that made this company achieve economies of scale. Novartis Company has used aggregation techniques to ensure it achieves economies of scale. It has developed a variety of drugs. This company manufactures over fifty key products into the market. It has several divisions that include; generic medicines division and eye care division. The generic drugs division produces more than one thousand different types of affordable products across the globe. The eye care division is concerned with eye related drugs. Producing many varieties of drugs enables the company to tap a wider market since the customers will be able to choose their best drug from a variety of medications. The IBM Company has used the aggregation strategy to increase the level of sales to its software and other products it manufactures. These techniques are essential to the company as they enable the companies to achieve economies of scale (Jose, 2010). This company has created standardized prices for its products making most customers able to afford them. It has also conducted many consulting services in areas of technology such as nanotechnology. The company has invented unique products like floppy disks, hard drives and automated teller machines, which are preferred by many customers. These inventions make the companys products achieve preference in the market. This has led to increasing in sales. The last company that uses aggregation techniques in business user industry is Microsoft. Microsoft has used this strategy by constantly improving its products. Microsoft improves its Windows products more often, with the latest being windows ten. The introduction of improved windows with unique features, like fewer bugs, high speed at the thought compatibility, makes most customers to prefer windows. This makes the sales for this product by the company increase making it achieve economies of scale. The company also produces a variety of unique search engines like Bing. Many people are always eager to test new products with unique features. This has made many people migrate from using Google search to using Bing. The last strategy used by companies is the arbitrage technique. PG has used this strategy by outsourcing some of its operations to other businesses. Some shoppers buy Vicks cough syrup in bulk then put them in different packages and resell them at retail prices. This is a uniquely direct way of outsourcing. This strategy has enabled the company to reduce advertising and selling costs. Outsourcing is a strategy that helps the company reduce both operating and selling costs (Dobni, 2011). This strategy has as well enabled the company to expand its supply chain in many countries. Novartis is another company that uses arbitrage techniques. The company has outsourced some of its operations to other businesses to reduce operational costs. The latest being the plans to close its plant in Puerto Rico by the year 2019 and outsource its manufacturing activities to another company called Eli Lilly (Novartis, 2015). This is a plan that has been made due to the lifting of the tax incentives in Puerto Rico. The company uses this strategy to reduce costs and maximize its profits. Another company that uses arbitrage techniques is the IBM. This company has outsourced some of its noncore activities to other businesses. It has also formed several labor intensive groups and expanded its supply chain in several countries. (Shijja, 2014). The company has also acquired some other companies like, the weather company which was acquired in 2016. In 2014, the company made plans to outsource all the manufacturing works to global founders. The company also outsourced its information and technology activities to Alpha works. (Salara, 2010). This has enabled the company to reduce the cost of manufacturing and distribution. Microsoft is the last company that uses arbitrage techniques to cut its operating and marketing costs. In 2010, Microsoft outsourced all its IT operations to Infosys Technologies Ltd (Computerworld, 2010). This attempt by Microsoft enabled it to cut IT costs and the costs of managing the information technology help desk. The company is, therefore, able to concentrate on its key objectives and lower the costs of venturing into noncore activities. The company is, therefore, able to enjoy reduced operational costs and concentrate solely on the core objectives (Jose, 2010). This ensures maximization of profits by the firm. Activities that consume funds for the enterprise are outsourced to other societies which conduct them as their main objectives. Conclusion. In conclusion, it is a fact that companies must adopt competitive strategies. These strategies enable the businesses to compete fairly, expand their operations in the market and reduce the cost of their operations, according to Ghemawat, (2011). All businesses strive to gain a competitive advantage over their competitors. This is only possible if the companies adopt the high competitive strategies. Most companies combine these strategies to be more efficient in their operations. Such companies grow faster in the global market regarding customer coverage, the volume of sales and customer preference. They also enable the companies to reduce operational selling and distribution costs. Companies should, therefore, adopt the competitive strategies to compete favorably in the local and global market. References. Computer World Website Web Retrieved From, Http://Www.Computerworld.Com/Article/2517205/It-Outsourcing/Microsoft-Signs-Outsourcing-Pact-With-Indian-Giant-Infosys.Html Cheng, S. A. L. J., 2010. Invested Resource, Competitive Intellectual Capital, And Corporate Performance. Journal Of Intellectual Capital, 11(4), Pp. 433-450. Dobie, C., 2011. The Relationship Between Innovation Orientation And Organisational Performance. International Journal Of Innovation And Learning, 10(3), Pp. 226-240. Ghemawat, P., 2011. Redefining Global Strategy. Boston, USA: Havard Business School Press. IBM, 2012. It Enabled Business Transformation At IBM. IBM Journal Of Research And Development, December, 56(6), Pp. 1-20. IBM, 2013. Mobile Computing And IBM Power7 + Technologies. Journal Of Research And Development, 57(6), Pp. 1-2. Javernick, W., 2010. Who Needs To Know What?. Journal Of Construction And Engineering Management, 136(5), Pp. 546-557. Jose, A., 2010. Rethinking Global Economic And Social Development. Journal Of Globalization And Development, 1(1), Pp. 1-26. Ju, H. . J. K., 2011. Strategies For Developing Countries To Expand Their Shares In The Global Construction Market. Journal Of Construction Engineering And Management., June, 137(6), Pp. 460-470. Ken, F., 2015. Diversify Or Focus?. Columbia: Columbia Business School. Kluyver, C. A., 2010. Fundamentals Of Global Strategy. New York, USA: Business Expert Press. Melodie, C., 2011. How To Assess The Social Value Of Steel Product?. Product Environmental Footprint Guide, Issue 2, Pp. 63-65. Parent, J., 2010. Impact Assessment In Slca. International Journal, December, 15(2), Pp. 164-171. Pharmatechnologistwebsite Webometric Red From, Http://Www.In-Pharmatechnologist.Com/Processing/Novartis-To-Close-Puerto-Rico-Plant-And-Outsource-To-Eli-Lilly Rasha, A., 2013. Business Improvement Using Organisational Goals, Riva Technique And E-Business Development Stages. Journal Of Enterprise Information Management, 26(5), Pp. 577-595. Salara, R. E., 2010. Cultural Differences, Convergence And Crossvergence As Explanations Of Knowledge Transfer In International Acquisitions.. Journal Of International Business Studies., 41(8), Pp. 1365-1390. Shijia, Z. A. X. H., 2014. How Chinese "Snake" Swallows Western "Elephant." Journal Of International

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Utopia and Contemporary Identity Theft

It has become a complex issue to combat social problems with ever-increasing issues of theft in the modern world. The world has become much advanced as communication has exceeded from its expected boundaries. Concerns for security purpose have become seemingly very imperative in this regards.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Utopia and Contemporary Identity Theft specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The article written by Jennifer Saranow Schultz namely Rising Cost of Identity Theft for Consumers introduces us to a newer kind of theft referred to identity theft. Sir Thomas More has relatively discussed a framework of countering the issue of theft in his book Utopia in which an ideal of a socio-politically balanced society has been projected. This paper illustrates contemporary social problem of theft from a newspaper article along with a framework to counter it as proposed by Sir Thomas More. The author of the article Jennifer Saranow claims that identity theft is an ever increasing social problem. In the advanced technological era, it has increased its measure of prevalence. The author has reported a great deal of statistics to present a thorough scenario of the situation. Estimated figures that have been cited from the 2011 identity fraud survey reports are claiming that around 8.1 million account holders have suffered from identity theft (Saranow). A yearly report of the survey has incorporated enhancement of social issue. The author claims that identity theft is being undertaken in almost every part of the world with little efforts put by thieves to take up financial details. With reference to the article, identity theft has been defined as an act which is undertaken to take financial gains from the listed information (Saranow). If a thorough research is conducted then it becomes visible that ever increasing statistics of identity theft have contributed in a more interrelated problem in a so ciety. For majority of people, theft may remain stealing of belongings but now its definition has become vast as now thieves are able to steal identity of a person. Because of identity theft, a great deal of professionals had to come across difficulties such as defaulter fines and financial loss. The method to counter identity theft is to apply the proposed methods by Sir Thomas More. In his book Utopia, Sir Thomas More has presented an ideal of socio-political society where every theft is examined and then thieves are punished for their act. According to Thomas, a thief who undertakes a theft must be punished within the same frequency. For instance, if theft has been conducted by slaughtering the other person then the culprit is supposed to be slaughtered in front of members of society so that it could become an exemplary execution (More, Robinson and Sacks).Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, debate has also been noted in the book of Thomas More with respect to crime that has been committed. The author seemingly presented an argument for those who believe that theft must not be punished. The author has also supported his claim with different executions that could be applied to counter social evils such as identity theft (Lupton). With the application of method of Thomas More that stresses on punishing theft with respect to their sins, it could be said that a great deal of social problems could be countered. In case of identity theft by stealing information from advanced computing systems, thieves must be found with accurate tracing softwares. The transactions of financial details are recorded by almost all financial institutions. To a certain degree, financial institutions can be considered as responsible for such thefts because they lack security checks. As Sir Thomas More claimed that those punishments should be sentences that do not finish the e vil mind of culprit right away. Thieves must be kept in prison for a time period that would be enough to change his personality. Furthermore, the concept of socio-politically sound society states that everything that is looted must come back as a price paid by the culprit (More, Robinson and Sacks). The alarming statistical information provided in the article by Jennifer refers to a system that has become complexly in-combatable. The tyranny of culprits in the modern world cannot be practiced for a longer period as the methods of Thomas More is able to provide combating measures. As Thomas More has affirmed in his book that money should stay stably in every class so that the demand does not rise selfishly. Financial institutions need to make sure that they have plans to help those who lack money and power. If punishment is considered as a way out to combat then it shall also be noted that foundations of security concerns in the advanced world are also required (Lupton). Through the above discussion, it comes to our understanding that identity theft is increasing with higher percentage every year. It is because of the increase in the identity theft that people have started to face troubles in their financial activities. The discussion also claims that avid response to thefts must be undertaken as it refers to a socio-politically sound society. The article written by Jennifer provides a background to a social problem which is potential to be combated by the proposed method of Sir Thomas More. Works Cited Lupton, J. The Utopia of Sir Thomas More. New York: BiblioLife, 2009.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Utopia and Contemporary Identity Theft specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More More, T, R Robinson and D. Sacks. Utopia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 1999. Saranow, J. â€Å"The Rising Cost of Identity Theft for Consumers.† The New York Times 9 February 2011. This essay on Utopia and Contemporary Identity Theft was written and submitted by user Zuri Harrington to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

George Washigton essays

George Washigton essays George Washington played an important role in American history. Hes known as the Founding Father of our countrys government. He is also, the leader who won independence. Who would have thought that the son of a Virginia planter would accomplish so much in such little time? Washingtons journey began early when he met the well known Fairfax family. At this time, he had no knowledge of the excitement that was ahead of him. Nor, did he know the courage he had within him. Although George was fond of action, he wanted to keep peace, if he could, when it came to war. Courage, action, and peace led George Washington to Presidency. He was born on February 22, 1732 in Virginia. According to Funk and Wagnalls New Encyclopedia, He later moved to Mount Vernon (q.v.), the home of his elder half- brother, Lawrence Washington (d.1752), who was allied with the powerful Fairfax (q.v.) family of Virginia. George eventually came into the possession of the Mount Vernon property when Lawrence died.(446). The Fairfax family owned an enormous amount of land. They wanted George to head west and help survey their property. By going on this journey, he found a love for the land. A few years later he began surveying for others. In 1753 he was appointed adjutant of one of the districts into which Virginia was divided, with the rank of major.(447). This was the beginning of George Washingtons political career. During the French and Indian War, he was a messenger. He took notice of the opposing sides tactics. He searched for any way to find out as much as possible to help. He was a success. Georges next bit of adventure came at Fort Duquesne. At this fort, well over half of the British troops were killed along with their general. This is the battle where guerrilla warfare was used against the British causing a defeat. Washington now i ...

Saturday, November 23, 2019

African American History and Women Timeline 1960-1969

African American History and Women Timeline 1960-1969 [Previous] [Next] 1960 Ruby Bridges integrated an all-white elementary school in New Orleans, Louisiana Ella Baker among others organized SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) at Shaw University Wilma Rudolph became the first American woman to win three Olympic gold medals, and was named Athlete of the Year by the United Press 1961 CORE Freedom Rides began, with the aim of desegregating public buses many brave women and men participated (March 6) Executive Order by John F. Kennedy promoted affirmative action to abolish racial biases in hiring on projects where federal funds were involved 1962 Meredith v. Fair case argued by Constance Baker Motley. The decision allowed James Meredith to be admitted to the University of Mississippi. 1963 (September 15) Denise McNair, Carole Robertson, Addie Mae Collins, and Cynthia Weston, ages 11-14, killed in the bombing of 16th Street Church in Birmingham, Alabama Dinah Washington (Ruth Lee Jones) died (singer) 1964 (April 6) Mrs. Frankie Muse Freeman becomes the first woman on the new U.S. Commission on Civil Rights (July 2) US Civil Rights Act of 1964 became law Fannie Lou Hamer testified for the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party before the Credentials Committee of the Democratic National Convention 1965 Viola Liuzzo murdered by Ku Klux Klan members after participating in civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama affirmative action was required to eliminate racial bias in hiring on federally-funded projects, as defined by Executive Order 11246 Patricia Harris became the first African American woman ambassador (Luxemburg) Mary Burnett Talbert died (activist: anti-lynching, civil rights) Dorothy Dandridge died (actress, singer, dancer) Lorraine Hansberry died (playwright, wrote Raisin in the Sun) 1966 (August 14) Halle Berry born (actress) (August 30) Constance Baker Motley appointed a federal judge, the first African American woman to hold that office 1967 (June 12) in Loving v. Virginia, Supreme Court ruled that laws prohibiting interracial marriage were unconstitutional, voiding statutes still on the books in 16 states (October 13) 1965 Executive Order 11246, requiring affirmative action to eliminate racial bias in hiring on federally-funded projects, was amended to include gender-based discrimination Aretha Franklin, Queen of Soul, recorded her signature song, Respect 1968 Shirley Chisholm was the first African American woman elected to the US House of Representatives   Audre Lorde  published her first book of poems,  The First Cities. 1969 (October 29) Supreme Court ordered immediate desegregation of school districts [Previous] [Next] [1492-1699] [1700-1799] [1800-1859] [1860-1869] [1870-1899] [1900-1919] [1920-1929] [1930-1939] [1940-1949] [1950-1959] [1960-1969] [1970-1979] [1980-1989] [1990-1999] [2000-]

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Short answer questions Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Short answer questions - Coursework Example With two workers, Karen would make 40 stethoscopes ($400), but pay $200 in wages, giving a profit margin of $200. With three workers, Karen would make 55 stethoscopes ($550), but pay $300 in wages , giving a profit margin of $250. With four workers, Karen would make 65 stethoscopes ($650), but pay $400 in wages, again giving a profit margin of $250. With five workers, Karen would make 70 stethoscopes ($700), but pay $500 in wages, giving a profit margin of $200. With six workers, Karen would make 73 stethoscopes ($730), and give $600 in wages, meaning the profit margin is only $130, and with seven the profit margin is only $40. Taking all of this into account, it would seem that Karen should hire 4 or 5 workers, as these options both give a $250 profit margin and this gives the profit-maximizing level of output. This can be found using the formula: 2. Given the information from question 1, now say that the workers whom Karen hires get trained in new technology and learn new skills. This causes them to become more productive. Karen’s firm is the only firm to use this technology, and training does not improve the productivity of workers in firms outside of Karen’s firm. a) Will this change the quantity of workers whom Karen hires? Explain your answer. b) Will this change the wage rate of the workers in Karen’s firm? Explain your answer. (5 points) b- Different skill levels often equate to a difference in pay, and in this case Karen has hired workers trained in new technology with skills that cannot be found outside her own firm. The difference in pay rates for skilled workers can be seen as a compensation for aquiring skills (which may mean the worker has not been earning for some time) or for simply going through the lengthy and sometimes difficult process of aquiring these skills (Baumol, 2011). Additionally, as this technology is not available at other firms, workers need to have an incentive to work for Karen and undergo the relevant training, and

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

See Below Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 17

See Below - Essay Example This administrative task needs to be accomplished on the first step of the implementation of the Act. This is so because this expenditure is tired together with the Cap insurance company. The third administrative task is calculating and enforcing the refundable tax credits for the Americans with incomes of between 100% and 400% of the federal poverty line (FPL). The hard part of this task comes in because the tax credit is being calculated on a reducing scale basis (sliding scale). Another administrative task comes in for those who already are covered under other insurance schemes. This is true for example for those under 18 years and who are covered under their parents or grandparents but who also on turning 18 years will require to be changed to be independent. The last administrative task is the linking of the insurance that this health care Act is advocating for and the hospitals which will be handling the patients and will need to coordinate with the other stakeholders before any costs and charges can be made or deducted on the part of the hospital. This will also need those in charge of the Act to be quick in making the payments once the hospital forwards the hospital

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Amusement Parks Essay Example for Free

Amusement Parks Essay At Six Flags on Friday July 19, 2013 a woman was riding the Texas Giant rollercoaster when she fell out of her restraints. Carmen Brown, a witness, says that the woman had asked the staff to check her restraints shortly before the ride was starting. The gentleman that she had asked asked the woman if she heard the restraints click, the woman responded saying it didn’t sound like everyone else’s. The gentleman then, nonchalantly, told her that as long as it clicked it was okay. Nothing else was ever done to ensure the woman’s restraints were secure. Some witnesses have reported that as the rollercoaster was making a turn the woman was thrown out. The name of the victim and any further information has not been released. It is suspected that the woman was with her son. When the train had returned from the ride, it was reported that two people were shouting, one was screaming â€Å"My mom† â€Å"My mom†. The rollercoaster staff parked the train far enough away from the platform so no one was allowed get off of the train. Due to the traumatic experience and people fearing the safety of the rides at Six Flags, the company will probably lose a good portion of money because people will not want or continue going to their park. This accident has caused an unexpected economic change in not only Six Flags but in all other amusement parks as well. Society will now have this negative view on amusement parks which means, for a little while at least, they will not want to go to the parks. This will cause the parks income to decline which can be very bad for the company, especially for Six Flags, who declared bankruptcy in 2009. When society loses trust in something they will usually pull back their economic support, leaving companies with fewer customers. It is important that companies and organizations remember that they have to keep the customer happy and safe. If not they will no longer have any customers. The majority of the people that witnessed the tragic event of the woman falling to her death due to a mechanical issue will probably no longer return to the park and they will likely have a large influence on their friends and family to not trust the park as well.